A dark-sky preserve is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that is kept free of artificial light pollution. The purpose of a dark-sky preserve is generally to promote astronomy. Because different national organizations have worked independently to create their programs, different terms have been used to describe the areas. This has led to confusion between the terms reserve, preserve, and park. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) chooses reserve to avoid confusion with park, when using the acronyms “IDSR” (International Dark-Sky Reserve) and “IDSP” (International Dark-Sky Park). In 1999, the first permanent preserve was established in Torrance Barrens in Ontario, Canada. Nevertheless, protection zones around observatories existed well before the creation of that preserve. The IDA recognizes protected areas outside the United States. The Mont Mégantic Observatory in Quebec, Canada is the first such site to be recognized (in 2007) as International Dark-Sky Reserve. IDA has also recognized Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah as the world’s first International Dark-Sky Park. Canada has established an extensive standard for dark-sky preserves that addresses lighting within the DSP and influences from skyglow from urban areas in the region. This was based on the work of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. There are no other established standards for dark sky preserves. Outside Canada, such designations are generally through self-proclamation. As a result, the validity of such a designation may be dubious. In some cases, dark sky preserves are neither dark nor protected. It is generally understood that a Dark-Sky Preserve, or Dark-Sky Reserve, should be sufficiently dark to promote astronomy. However this is not always the case. The lighting protocol for a Dark-Sky Preserve is based on the sensitivity of wildlife to artificial light at night (ALAN). The lighting protocol for the RASC is based primarily on wildlife sensitivity.
Dark Sky Park
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